What is Purdue Citation Style? 

Citing sources accurately is a fundamental aspect of academic writing, ensuring that credit is given to the original authors and providing readers with the means to locate the referenced material. 

Among the various citation styles used in academia, Purdue citation style, also known as Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) citation style, is widely adopted across disciplines. 

This comprehensive guide aims to provide a thorough understanding of Purdue citation, including its principles, formatting guidelines, and examples.

What is Purdue Citation Style? – Check Now!

Purdue citation style is a set of rules and guidelines established by Purdue University’s OWL, a renowned online writing lab, to facilitate consistent and standardized documentation of sources in academic writing. 

It is based on the guidelines outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), with some variations and additional recommendations.

Key Components of Purdue Citation – Read Now!

1. In-text Citations:

In-text citations in Purdue citation style typically include the author’s last name and the year of publication enclosed in parentheses. For direct quotations, page numbers are also provided.

Example: (Smith, 2019, p. 45)

2. Reference List:

The reference list, located at the end of the document, provides detailed information about each source cited within the text. Entries are arranged alphabetically by the authors’ last names.


Smith, J. (2019). The Art of Academic Writing. Publisher.

3. Formatting Guidelines:

Purdue citation style adheres to specific formatting guidelines for various types of sources, including books, journal articles, websites, and more. These guidelines dictate how information should be presented in both in-text citations and the reference list.

4. DOI and URL:

When referencing online sources, Purdue citation style recommends including a digital object identifier (DOI) if available. If a DOI is not provided, a stable URL should be included.

5. Abbreviations and Capitalization:

Purdue citation style utilizes standard abbreviations and capitalization rules, such as capitalizing the first word of the title and subtitle, proper nouns, and the first word after a colon or dash in the title.

Example of Purdue Citation – Ultimate Guide!

1. Book:

In-text citation: (Johnson, 2017)

Reference list: Johnson, A. (2017). The History of Modern Art. Publisher.

2. Journal Article:

In-text citation: (Brown & White, 2020, p. 25)

Reference list: Brown, C., & White, L. (2020). The Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity. Journal Title, 10(2), 20-35.

3. Website:

In-text citation: (World Health Organization, 2021)

Reference list: World Health Organization. (2021). COVID-19 Updates.


Amidst the array of citation styles prevalent in academia, Purdue citation style, often referred to as Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) citation style, stands out as a widely embraced standard across diverse academic fields.


1. What makes Purdue citation style unique among other academic citation formats?

Purdue citation style, also known as Purdue OWL citation style, offers a comprehensive and user-friendly approach to citing sources across various disciplines.

2. Can I use Purdue citation style for all types of academic writing?

Yes, Purdue citation style is suitable for citing sources in research papers, essays, reports, and other scholarly works across disciplines.

While based on APA guidelines, Purdue citation style incorporates specific adaptations and recommendations, ensuring clarity and consistency in academic documentation.

4. How can I access detailed guidelines for using Purdue citation style?

Purdue University’s OWL website provides extensive resources and examples to guide writers in correctly formatting citations and references according to Purdue citation style.

5. Is Purdue citation style recognized internationally, or is it primarily used in the United States?

Although developed by Purdue University, Purdue citation style is recognized and utilized by writers and scholars worldwide for its clarity and adherence to academic standards.

6. Can I use citation management tools to generate Purdue-style citations automatically?

Yes, many citation management tools and software platforms support Purdue citation style, allowing users to generate accurate citations and manage bibliographic information efficiently.

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